Development of new generation of detectors of particles and ionizing radiation including scintillators for fundamental research in high energy physics and neutrino physics
In 1994 CMS collaboration decided to build a high-resolution electromagnetic calorimeter using lead tungstate crystals (PWO). In early 1990s lead tungstate was considered as a potentially perspective material for high energy physics. However, it didn't meet a bunch of requirements of the experiment. A group of researchers from INP BSU headed by Mikhail Korzhik Dr. Sci. played a key role in creation of a heavy scintillation material that is insensitive to radiation and has a fast luminescence times based on lead tungstate. Mass production of these elements started in 1999 in Bogoroditsk Techno-Chemical Plant (Russia).
The achieved success in development of the lead tungstate scintillator also resulted in adoption of these scintillators by ALICE collaboration in CERN for building of their electromagnetic calorimeter.
To provide the certification of PWO crystals, in collaboration with LAPP (Laboratoire d'Annecy-le-Vieux de physique des particules, France) and CERN, scientific group of HEEP from 1996 to 2003 developed, manufactured and mounted the components of the spectrometers in CERN and Bogoroditsk Techno-Chemical Plant for measurement of the parameters of PWO crystals during mass production. Currently the department continues the work on ensuring of certification of PWO crystals for CMS, that are manufactured in Bogoroditsk Techno-Chemical Plant. Experts of the institute perform regular control of the state and calibration of the equipment, set up in the plant. Also the staff of the Institute perform the analysis of parameters of produced crystals and control the stability of crystal quality.
In the framework of cooperation with LAPP on ensuring of certification of PWO crystals from 2000 to 2002 components of spectrometers were designed and mounted for measurement of the parameters of PWO crystals in the particle beam. From 2002 to 2003 the staff of the department in collaboration with the scientists of LAPP and CERN thorough examinations of sensitivity of PWO scintillation crystals to exposure were carried out. As a result of these examinations correlations necessary for accurate reconstruction of experimental data were derived.
In 2003 PWO was also adopted for creation of detector based on lead tungstate crystals for international project "Proton-Antiproton" (Panda) at a Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) in Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research (GSI), Darmstadt, Germany. The department will co-develop the technology of production of PWO scintillator, which were adapted for use in PANDA experiment. The department will also take part in the works on optimisation of light collection from detecting cell.
In 2005 the Department of high energy physics at INP BSU was invited to take part in the research under project International linear collider ILC. In the framework of this project the scientific team of INP BSU plans to co-develop the perspective compensated electromagnetic calorimeters using PWO crystals for experiments of new planned collider ILC.
As a result PWO scintillator became the most widely used in high energy physics experiments in the forthcoming decade.