Laboratory of high-current electronics
High energy nuclear optics of polarized particles
The research of nuclear-optical phenomena in matter were initiated by the article by V. Baryshevsky and M. Podgoretsky (1965). It was shown, that when a neutron is moving through a target with polarized nuclei its spin rotates. This effect is a kinematic analog of optical rotation of polarization plane because of Faraday effect. Remarkably the particles with spin 1 have the effect that is analog to optical birefringence effect (Baryshevsky, 1992).
Laboratory works on the justification of experiments, that could observe the Т(СР) odd optical gyrotropy of media and, thus, measuring the Т(СР) odd polarizability of atoms and nuclei using high precision optical methods. Measuring of the above physical quantities as well as measuring of electron and nucleus electric dipole moments tells the information about processes, that take place within the Planck scale of length, without using the high-energy acceleratorsй.
Studies of high-energy deuteron birefringence effect at accelerator facilities NICA, GSI, LHC and FCC show great promise: planning of experiments to measure anomalous magnetic moments of short-lived charm and beauty hyperons by using the effect of their spin rotation in bent crystals and their spin depolarization in crystals on LHC and FCC; measurement of quadrupole moment of Omega-hyperon; study of dependence of anomalous magnetic moment of electron (positron) on the magnitude of external electric field using the effect of spin rotation and depolarization of spin for relativistic particles that move in crystals.
In connection with the creation of slow antiproton beams in CERN and GSI we propose the possibility of study of potential of interaction of an antiproton with a nucleus at extremely low energies (electonvolts) using quasi-optical nuclear precession effect.
High-power radiation sources on the basis of high-current and high-voltage particle accelerators
The laboratory actively works on the development of powerful pulse sources of X-ray and gamma radiation based on high current high voltage pulse accelerators, neutron radiation, and also microwave and powerful laser radiation. The experimental prototype of virtual cathode generator was developed, it has a peak power of microwave radiation about 200 MW in the range from 2.5 GHz to 5 GHz. The generator of microwave radiation, that works at a lower voltage of 350-450 kV, is the only one in the whole world.
In 2001 the electromagnetic radiation in volume free electron laser (VFEL) was generated for the first time in the world. Generators that a capable of fine tuning of frequency in a wide spectrum range with a high radiation power can be made based on VFEL.
We observed in an experiment and theoretically explained an effect of cumulation of high current electron beam caused by Coulomb repulsion of electrons, that are emitted by explosive-emission plasma, that emerges from the inner edge of cathode. This effect is of interest for generating electron beams with small cross-section (less than 1 mm²) and very high current density (up to 1.2 kA/cm²), that have extremely low spread of particles along their longitudinal momentum: less than 0.1% in the field of maximal current density.
Generation of high-current and high-voltage pulses by explosively driven magnetic energy cumulation
A series of research and development activities on creation of explosion-magnetic (magnetocumulative) generators in Belarus. The first experimental prototype of explosion-magnetic generator was successfully tested in 2004. Current pulses with an amplitude up to 3 MA were observed in the models of generators that were created from 2004 to 2015 and could store up to 100 kJ of electromagnetic energy. More than 150 various explosion-magnetic generators were tested.
Our theoretical and experimental results deepen the understanding of complicated physical processes, that take place during the motion of relativistic plasma and conversion of energy of explosion into electromagnetic energy in the range of high energy density. This lets us start producing even more powerful systems, that are necessary in many fields of science and technology. Among the nearest objectives of the laboratory is the designing and manufacturing of experimental prototypes of explosion-magnetic generators that produce current pulses up to 5 MA and the feasibility study of use of such generators for creation of high-current beam accelerators with currents up to 100 kA and the sources of induced radiation in various ranges.